Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds


Check out our new Refuge Highlights, describing phenology monitoring programs on 5 refuges across the country!  

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USFWS Phenology Network

In response to the Strategic Plan for Climate Change and the proposed Action Plan for Climate Change, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) is collaborating with the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) and its online phenology monitoring program, Nature’s Notebook, to monitor phenology throughout the Refuge System. The organizations share common goals of understanding and communicating patterns in the phenology of plants, animals, and landscapes, especially in response to climate change. View the USA National Phenology Network Fact Sheet. : Visit the NWRS web page to learn more about the Refuge System.

Why Phenology?

Phenological events, like leaf out and migration, are changing in response to rapid changes in climate. These changes will impact species abundance, distribution, interactions, carbon and water cycles, agriculture, and the ecosystem services that ultimately benefit human well-being. Implementation of a comprehensive phenological monitoring program will inform adaptive refuge management and engage the public in the observation of the natural world. For more, please visit the USA National Phenology Network.